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Carnegie Mellon Heinz School Policy Management Information Technology
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David Krackhardt 

David Krackhardt 

Professor of Organizations, Heinz School and GSIA joint appointment
PhD, Organizational Behavior, University of California, Irvine


Over the past 15 years, Dr. Krackhardt's research has focused on how the theoretical insights and methodological innovations of network analysis can enhance our understanding of how organizations function. He pioneered the concept of "cognitive social structures". Another interest has been in developing methodologies for better understanding networks and their implications.

Publications (1995 - Current)

(Refereed journal articles indicated with a *)

* "Choosing Workgroup Members: Balancing Similarity, Competence, and Familiarity" (with Hinds, Pam, Carley, Kathleen, and Douglas Wholey), Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, In press.

* "Positive affectivity and accuracy in social network perception." (with Casciaro, Tiziana and Carley, Kathleen), Motivation and Emotion, In press.

"Communication Networks and Organizations: A Network Approach." (with Brass, Daniel), In Henry L. Tois (eds.), Extensions of the Environment/Organizations/Person Model:Volume II. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, forthcoming.

* "Redundant Governance Structures: An analysis of structural and relational embeddedness in the steel and semiconductor industries." (with Rowley, Tim and Behrens, Dean), Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue on Strategic Networks, (21) 3: 369-386, 2000.

"Measuring and Modeling Change in C31 Architectures." (with Carley, Kathleen M. and Yuqing Ren), In Proceedings of the 2000 International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology. June, Monterray, CA, 2000.

* "Spreading and Sifting Costs of Lateral Control in a Law partnership: A Structure Analysis at the Individual Level." (with Lazega, Emmanuel), Quality and Quantity, 34: 153-175, 2000.

"Modeling Structures of Organizations." In David R. Ilgen & Charles L. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (eds.) Computational Modeling of Behavior in Organizations: The Third Scientific Discipline. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000.

"Social Capital for Twenty-first Century Leaders." (with Brass, Daniel), In J. G. Hunt and R. L. Phillips (eds.) Out-of-the Box Leadership Challenges for the 21st Century Army, 179-194, 1999.

* "Whether Close or Far: Perceptions of Balance in Friendship Networks in Organizations." (with Martin Kilduff), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76:770-782, 1999.

* "The Ties That Torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in Organizations." Research in
the Sociology of Organizations, 16:183-210, 1999.

* "A PCANS Model of Structure in Organizations." (with Kathleen Carley), Proceedings of the 1998 International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology. June, Monterey, CA, 1998.

"Simmelian Tie: Super Strong and Sticky." In Roderick Kramer and Margaret Neale (eds.) Power and Influence in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 21-38, 1998.

* "A Test of Communication and Cultural Similarity in Polynesian Prehistory." (with Hage, Per and Frank Harary), Current Anthropology, 39(5):699-703, 1998. (With this publication, my Erdös number becomes 2. See

"Endogenous Preferences: A Structural Approach," in Jennifer Halpern and Robert N. Stern (eds.) Debating Rationality: Non-rational Aspects of Organizational Decision Making, Cornell University Press, pp. 239-247, 1998.

* "Organizational Viscosity and Diffusion of Controversial Innovations," Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 22:177-199, 1997.

* "Social Capital and Career Mobility: A Structural Theory of Lower Returns-to-education for Asians," (with Friedman, Raymond), Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 33(3): 316-334, 1997.

* "The Effects of Spatial Arrangements on Perceptions of Graphs," (with McGrath, Cathleen and Blythe, Jim), Social Networks, 19(2), 1997. (A preliminary version of this paper was also published under the title "The effect of graph layout on inference from social network data," Proceedings of the 1995 Graph Drawing Conference, Springer-Verlag, 1995.)

* "A Brief History of Balance Through Time," (with Doreian, Patrick, Roman Kapuscinski, and Janusz Szczypula), Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 21:113-131, 1996. (This paper was reprinted in a book entitled Evolution of Social Networks, Patrick Doreian and Frans N. Stokman (eds.), Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1997, pp. 129-147.)

"Comment on Burt and Knez' Third-Party Effects on Trust." Rationality and Society, 8(1): pp. 111-116, 1996.

"Social Networks and Liability of Newness for Managers." In C. L. Cooper and D. M. Rousseau (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. New York, NY. Trends in Organizational Behavior, Volume 3, pp. 159-173, 1996.

* "Cognitive Inconsistencies and Non-Symmetric Friendship," (with Carley, Kathleen), Social Networks, 18:1-28, 1996.

"Structural Leverage in Marketing." In Dawn Iacobucci (eds.), Networks in Marketing, Sage, Thousand Oaks CA. Pp. 50-59, 1996.

"Seeing Groups in Graph Layouts," (with McGrath, Cathleen and Jim Blythe), Connections, 19(2): 22-29, 1996. (This paper is also available on the web at The web version allows the reader to try their hand at the experiment reported on in the paper.)

* "Entrepreneurial Opportunities in an Entrepreneurial Firm: A Structural Approach," in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring, pp. 53-69, 1995.

Click here for a listing of current Working Papers authored by Professor Krackhardt.

Professional Associations and Service

Founding Editor, Journal of Social Structure. (This is a new electronic journal established in February 1999, by the International Network of Social Network Analysis.)

Area Editor, Journal of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 1994 to present.

Editorial Board Member, Academy of Management Journal, 1993-1996.

Editorial Board Member, Administrative Science Quarterly, 1983-1992.

Member, Academy of Management

Member, International Network of Social Network Analysis


Marvin Bower Fellowship, Harvard University (1990-91)

Mobil Scholar Award, Cornell University (1988)

Fellowship, Richard D. Irwin Foundation (1981-82)

Winner of the UCI Distinguished Student Lecture Series Award, 1980, for "The Power Gamma: An Alternative Approach to Monotonic Association Measurement." Student Paper, University of California, Irvine. Winner of the UCI Distinguished Student Lecture Series Award. (Subsequently published in the Proceedings of the national meeting of the American Institute of Decision Sciences, Las Vegas, NV.)

Research Excellence Award, UCI Alumni Association, 1978, for "Identifying Causality In Non-experimental Investigations." Unpublished paper, University of California, Irvine. Also, Outstanding Graduate Student Paper Award, presented by the Southern California Chapter of the American Statistical Association.


Professor Krackhardt earned a bachelor's degree in management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management in 1973. He earned a master's in 1977 and a Ph.D. in 1984 in administration from the University of California, Irvine. The focus of his dissertation was "A Social Network Analysis of the Effects of Employee Turnover: A Longitudinal Field Study."

WWW Resources

Professor Krackhardt has developed a program called KrackPlot for network visualization. It has been designed for social network analysts. Information about KrackPlot can be found at: Professor Krackhardt's personal academic home page is located at: