Faculty Details

Photo of David M. Krackhardt

David M. Krackhardt

Professor of Organizations and Public Policy (Joint appointment with the Tepper School of Business)

Office: Hamburg Hall 2215
Email: krack@andrew.cmu.edu
Personal Website



Over the past 15 years, Dr. Krackhardt's research has focused on how the theoretical insights and methodological innovations of network analysis can enhance our understanding of how organizations function. He pioneered the concept of "cognitive social structures". Another interest has been in developing methodologies for better understanding networks and their implications.

Publications (1995 - Current)

(Refereed journal articles indicated with a *)

* "Choosing Workgroup Members: Balancing Similarity, Competence, and Familiarity" (with Hinds, Pam, Carley, Kathleen, and Douglas Wholey), Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, In press.

* "Positive affectivity and accuracy in social network perception." (with Casciaro, Tiziana and Carley, Kathleen), Motivation and Emotion, In press.

"Communication Networks and Organizations: A Network Approach." (with Brass, Daniel), In Henry L. Tois (eds.), Extensions of the Environment/Organizations/Person Model:Volume II. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, forthcoming.

* "Redundant Governance Structures: An analysis of structural and relational embeddedness in the steel and semiconductor industries." (with Rowley, Tim and Behrens, Dean), Strategic Management Journal, Special Issue on Strategic Networks, (21) 3: 369-386, 2000.

"Measuring and Modeling Change in C31 Architectures." (with Carley, Kathleen M. and Yuqing Ren), In Proceedings of the 2000 International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology. June, Monterray, CA, 2000.

* "Spreading and Sifting Costs of Lateral Control in a Law partnership: A Structure Analysis at the Individual Level." (with Lazega, Emmanuel), Quality and Quantity, 34: 153-175, 2000.

"Modeling Structures of Organizations." In David R. Ilgen & Charles L. Hulin & D. R. Ilgen (eds.) Computational Modeling of Behavior in Organizations: The Third Scientific Discipline. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000.

"Social Capital for Twenty-first Century Leaders." (with Brass, Daniel), In J. G. Hunt and R. L. Phillips (eds.) Out-of-the Box Leadership Challenges for the 21st Century Army, 179-194, 1999.

* "Whether Close or Far: Perceptions of Balance in Friendship Networks in Organizations." (with Martin Kilduff), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76:770-782, 1999.

* "The Ties That Torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in Organizations." Research in
the Sociology of Organizations, 16:183-210, 1999.

* "A PCANS Model of Structure in Organizations." (with Kathleen Carley), Proceedings of the 1998 International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology. June, Monterey, CA, 1998.

"Simmelian Tie: Super Strong and Sticky." In Roderick Kramer and Margaret Neale (eds.) Power and Influence in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 21-38, 1998.

* "A Test of Communication and Cultural Similarity in Polynesian Prehistory." (with Hage, Per and Frank Harary), Current Anthropology, 39(5):699-703, 1998. (With this publication, my Erdös number becomes 2. See http://www.oakland.edu/enp/)

"Endogenous Preferences: A Structural Approach," in Jennifer Halpern and Robert N. Stern (eds.) Debating Rationality: Non-rational Aspects of Organizational Decision Making, Cornell University Press, pp. 239-247, 1998.

* "Organizational Viscosity and Diffusion of Controversial Innovations," Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 22:177-199, 1997.

* "Social Capital and Career Mobility: A Structural Theory of Lower Returns-to-education for Asians," (with Friedman, Raymond), Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 33(3): 316-334, 1997.

* "The Effects of Spatial Arrangements on Perceptions of Graphs," (with McGrath, Cathleen and Blythe, Jim), Social Networks, 19(2), 1997. (A preliminary version of this paper was also published under the title "The effect of graph layout on inference from social network data," Proceedings of the 1995 Graph Drawing Conference, Springer-Verlag, 1995.)

* "A Brief History of Balance Through Time," (with Doreian, Patrick, Roman Kapuscinski, and Janusz Szczypula), Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 21:113-131, 1996. (This paper was reprinted in a book entitled Evolution of Social Networks, Patrick Doreian and Frans N. Stokman (eds.), Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1997, pp. 129-147.)

"Comment on Burt and Knez' Third-Party Effects on Trust." Rationality and Society, 8(1): pp. 111-116, 1996.

"Social Networks and Liability of Newness for Managers." In C. L. Cooper and D. M. Rousseau (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. New York, NY. Trends in Organizational Behavior, Volume 3, pp. 159-173, 1996.

* "Cognitive Inconsistencies and Non-Symmetric Friendship," (with Carley, Kathleen), Social Networks, 18:1-28, 1996.

"Structural Leverage in Marketing." In Dawn Iacobucci (eds.), Networks in Marketing, Sage, Thousand Oaks CA. Pp. 50-59, 1996.

"Seeing Groups in Graph Layouts," (with McGrath, Cathleen and Jim Blythe), Connections, 19(2): 22-29, 1996. (This paper is also available on the web at http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/cm3t/groups.html. The web version allows the reader to try their hand at the experiment reported on in the paper.)

* "Entrepreneurial Opportunities in an Entrepreneurial Firm: A Structural Approach," in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring, pp. 53-69, 1995.

Professional Associations and Service

Founding Editor, Journal of Social Structure. (This is a new electronic journal established in February 1999, by the International Network of Social Network Analysis.)

Area Editor, Journal of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 1994 to present.

Editorial Board Member, Academy of Management Journal, 1993-1996.

Editorial Board Member, Administrative Science Quarterly, 1983-1992.

Member, Academy of Management

Member, International Network of Social Network Analysis


Marvin Bower Fellowship, Harvard University (1990-91)

Mobil Scholar Award, Cornell University (1988)

Fellowship, Richard D. Irwin Foundation (1981-82)

Winner of the UCI Distinguished Student Lecture Series Award, 1980, for "The Power Gamma: An Alternative Approach to Monotonic Association Measurement." Student Paper, University of California, Irvine. Winner of the UCI Distinguished Student Lecture Series Award. (Subsequently published in the Proceedings of the national meeting of the American Institute of Decision Sciences, Las Vegas, NV.)

Research Excellence Award, UCI Alumni Association, 1978, for "Identifying Causality In Non-experimental Investigations." Unpublished paper, University of California, Irvine. Also, Outstanding Graduate Student Paper Award, presented by the Southern California Chapter of the American Statistical Association.

Professor Krackhardt earned a  in 1973. He earned a master's in 1977 and a Ph.D. in 1984 in administration from the University of California, Irvine. The focus of his dissertation was "A Social Network Analysis of the Effects of Employee Turnover: A Longitudinal Field Study."


Bachelor's degree in Management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management
Master's & Ph.D. in Administration from the University of California, Irvine

Working Papers

To Be or Not To Be Linked on LinkedIn

Garg, Rajiv and Telang, Rahul. “To Be or Not To Be Linked on LinkedIn: Job Search Using Online Social Networks” NBER Summer Institute Working Paper 2012



Sensitivity of MRQAP Tests to Collinearity and Autocorrelation

MRQAP (Multiple Regression { Quadratic Assignment Procedure) tests are permutation tests for multiple regression coefficients for data organized in square matrices instead of vectors. Such a data structure is typical in social network studies, where variables indicate some type of relation between a given set of actors. Over the last 15 years, new approaches to permutation tests have been developed. Some of the proposed tests have been found to be substantially more robust against collinearity in the data. Most studies evaluating the performance of permutation tests in linear models for square matrices do not consider the type of structural autocorrelation that is typical for social network data. This paper presents a new permutation method that complements the family of extant tests. Performance of various different approaches to MRQAP tests is evaluated under conditions of row and column autocorrelation in the data as well as collinearity between the variables through an extensive series of simulations.


A Typology for Network Measures for Organizations

Numerous measures of organizational structure have been developed. The goal is to develop a small meaningful and predictive set. Work in this area, however, has been hampered by a lack of a standard categorization schema. Such a schema is presented herein. This schema is based on the recognition that many aspects of organizational structures can be represented as graphs.


PCANS Model of Structure in Organizations

This paper presents a network based approach to characterize organizational architectures in terms of three domain elements - individuals, tasks, and resources. Characterizing the possible relations among these elements results in five relational primitives - Precedence, Commitment of resources, Assignment of individuals to tasks, Networks (of relations among personnel) and Skills linking individuals to resources. It is demonstrated that the utility of this model for re-characterizing classical organizational theory and for generating a series of testable hypotheses about organizational performance.


A Structural Perspective on Organizational Cognitions: Attributions of Power, Performance, and Attitudes

A Structural Perspective on Organizational Cognitions: Attributions of Power, Performance, and Attitudes


Endogenous Preferences: A Structural Approach

Endogenous Preferences: A Structural Approach